Washingtoner Abkommen

über die Fusion der amerikanischen und britischen Besatzungszonen zur Bizone
(Memorandum of Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom)

vom 2. Dezember 1946

Representatives of the two Governments have met at Washington to discuss the questions arising out of the economic fusion of ther zones of occupation in Germany. They have taken as the basis of ther discussion the fact that the aim of the two Governemnts is to achieve the economic unity of Germany as a whole, in accordance whit the agreement reached at Potsdam on 2nd August, 1945. The arrangements set out hereunder, for the United States and United Kingdom Zones, shold be regarded as the first step towards the achievement of the economic unity of Germany as a wohle in accordance with that agreement. The two Governents are ready at any time to enter into discussions with either of the other occupying powers with a view to the extension of these arrangements to their zones of occupation.

On this basis, agreement has been reached on the following paragraphs:

1. Date of inception. This agreement for economic fusion of the two zones shall take effect on 1st January, 1947.

2. Pooling of Resources. The two zones shall be treated as a single area for all economic purposes. The indigenous resources of the area and all imports into the area, including foot, shall bei pooles in order to produce a common standard of living.

3. German Administrative agencies. The United States an United Kingdom Commanders-in-Chief are responsible for setting up under their joint control the German administrative agencies necessary to the economic unification of the two zones.

4. Agency for Foreign Trade. Responsibility for foreign trade will rest initially with the Joint Export-Import Agency (United-States-United Kingdom) or such other agency for foreign trade unter joint suptervision to the maximum extent permitted by the restrictions existing in foreign countries at any given period. (All references in this agreement to the Joint Export-Import Agency shall apply to this agency or to any agency establisheb by the two Commanders-in-Chief to succeed it.)

5. Basis of Economic Planning. The aim of the two Governments is the achievement by the end of 1949 of a self-sustraining economy for the area.

6. Sharing of financial responsibility. Subject to the provision of the necessary appropriations, the Governments of the United States and the United Kingdom with become responsible on an equal basis for costs of approved imports brought into account after 31st December, 1956 (including stocks on hand financed by the respective Governemnts), insofar as those cannot bei paid for from other sources, in accordance wirh the following provisions:
(a) For this purpose the imports of the area shall be divided into two categories: those imports required to prevent disease and unrest (Catergory A), whiche are financed in decreasing amounts by appropriates funds; and those further imports (including raw materials), however financed, which will bei required if the economic state of the area is to recover to an extent sufficient to achieve the aim laid down in paragraph 5 of this Agreement (Category B).
It ist the intention of the two Governments that the full cost of Category A imports shall be defrayed as soon as possible, subject to sub-paragraph (c) below, from the proceeds of exports. Any portion of the cost of Category A imports which is not met by export proceeds will be defrayed by the two Governemnts in equal shares from appropriated funds.
(c) The proceeds of exports from the area shall be collected by the Joint Export-Import Agency and shall be used primarily for the provision of Category B imports until there is a surplus of export proceeds over the cost of thes imports.
(d) In order to provide funds to procure Category B imports:
    (i) The Government of the United Kingdom wil make available to the Joint Export-Import Agency the sum of $ 29,300,000 in settlement of the understandig reached in September, 1945, for the pooling of the proceeds of exports from the two zones in proportion to import expenditures, which shall be credited to the United States contribution.
    (ii) In addition to this sum the accumulates proceeds of exports from the United States Zone (estimates at $ 14,500,000), will be made available to the Joint Export-Import Agency for the purchase of Category B imports.
    (iii) The Government of the United Kingdom will provide Category B goods at the request of the Joint Export-Import Agency to a value equal to that of the United States contribution under sub-paragraphs (i) and (ii) above.
    (iv) The Governments of the United States and the United Kingdom will make available to the Joint Export-Import Agency in like amounts their respecive shares of the sum to be used for financing purchases of essential commodities for the German economy under the provisions, and upon ratification by the Government of Sweden, of the accord dates 18th July, 1946, between the Governments of the United States, the United Kingdom and France on the one hand and of Swenden on the other.
    (v) Any further sums which are agreed by the Joint Export-Import Agency to be required for the purchase of Category B imports shall be provided by the two Governments on an equal basis in such manner as they may agree. To the extent that either Government advances sums for the purchase of raw materials für processing and re-exprot on special terms as regards security and repayment, the other Government may advance equal sums on similar terms.
(e) The costs incurred by the two Governments for their two zones before 1st January, 1947, and for the area thereafter, shall be recoveres from future German exports in the shortest practicable time consistent with the rebuilding of the German exonomy on healthy non-aggressive lines.

7. Relaxation of Barriers to Trade. With a view to facilitating the expansion of German exports, barriers in the way of trade with Germany should be removed as rapidly as world conditions permit. To the same end the establishment of an exchange value for the mar shold be undertaken as soon as this is practicable; financial reform should be effected in Germany at an early date; and the exchange of full technical and business communications between Germany and other countries should bei facilitated as soon as possible. Potential buyers of Germann goods should be provided access to both zones to the full extent that facilities permit, and normal business channels should be restored as soon as possible.

8. Procurement. The determination of import requirements shall be the responsibility of the Joint Export-Import Agency. The procurement of thes requirements shall be dealt with as follows:
(i) Procurement of Category B imports and of Category A imports to the extent that they are not financed by appropiated funds shall be the responsibility of the Joint Export-Import Agency, with such assistance from the two Governemnts as may be desired. Unless otherwise agreed, subject to the procisions of this paragraph, procurement shall be from the most exonomical source of supply. However, the sources shall be selected to the fullest extent practicable so as to minimise the drain  on the dollar resources of the United Kingdom.
The two Governemnts will establish a joint committee in Washington with the following responsibilities:
    (a) In the case of commodities in short supply, to support the requirements of the Joint Exprot-Import Agency before the appropriate authorities.
    (b) To determine, where necessary, sources of supply and to designate procurement agencies having regard to the financial responsibilities and exchange resources of the two Governments. With respect to sub-paragraph (a) above, the two Governments agree to assist the committee in obtaining the requirements of the Joint Export-Import Agency having regard to all other legitimate claims on available world supply.
With respect to sub-paragraph (b) above, where the designated source of supply is the territory under the authority of the other Governemnt, the latter, if so requested, will accept responsibility for procuring those supplies as agent für the former.

9. Currency an banking arrangements. The Bipartite Finance Commitee (United States-United Kingdom) will be authorised to open acconts with approved banks of the countries in which the Joint Export-Import Agency is operating, provided that agreements are negotiated with those countries for credit balances to be transferred on demand into dollars or sterling. The Bipartite Finance Committee will bei authorised to accept payment of balances in either dollars or sterling, whichever, in the judgement of the Joint Export-Import Agency, may be better utilized in financing essential imports.

10. Food. The two Governments will support, to the full extent that appropriated and other funds will permit, an increase in the present ration standard to 1800 calories for the normal consumer as soon as the world food supply permits. This standard is accepted as the minimum which will support a reasonable economic recovery in Germany. However, in view of the current world food supply, a ration standard of 1550 calories for the normal consumer must bei accepted at present.

11. Imports for Displaced Persons. Subject to any international arrangements which may subsequently be made for the maintenance of displaces persons, the maintenance of displaced persons within both zones from the German exonomy shall not exceed the maintenance of German citizens from this economy. Supplementary rations and other benefits which may be provided for displaces persons in excess of those acailable to German citizens must be brought in to Germany without cost to the German exonomy.

12. Duration. It ist the intention of the two Governemnts that this agreement shall govern their mutual arrangements for the exonomic administration of the area pending agreement for the treatment of Germany as an exonomic unit or until amended by mutual agreement. It shall be reviewed at yearly intervals.

    Washington, den 2. Dezember 1946.

Es folgen die Unterschriften

Bereits durch das Abkommen vom 29. Mai 1947 wurde das vorstehende Abkommen faktisch gegenstandslos. Anstelle der bizonalen Verwaltungsräte, die die Wirtschaftspolitik der einzelnen Länder gemeinschaftlich verwalteten, wurde ein Wirtschaftsrat (gewählt von den Landtagen) als Parlament und ein dem Wirtschaftsrat verantwortlichen Exekutivrat gebildet.

Quellen: von Münch, Dokumente des geteilten Deutschland, Kröner Verlag Stuttgart 1976
Department of State, Germany 1947-1949, Washington 1950

© 8. Mai  2004
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